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Ideological Basis of Pakistan 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Meaning of Ideology

The word “Ideology is French in origin. It is made up of two components namely ‘idea’ and ‘logos’. Ida means concept and logo means studies.
Definition of of Ideology

A collection of beliefs, values, customs, aims, traditions, rituals which is common to all members of a society and its is expressed in the lives of all members of that society is called “Ideology”.
Explanation of Ideology

Ideology is generally used in wider perspective because human beings have unique way of thinking. It constitutes a system of human life whose integral parts are assertion, theories and objectives of human life. In a society the individuals have common beliefs, customs, traditions and rituals.

Importance of Ideology in Practical Life

There is a great importance of ideology in practical life. It gives common thinking and traditions to the people; hence unity is established among them. Thus a common culture is developed in the society due to this particular characteristics of that society are appeared which give it a separate identity in the world. The significance of ideology in practical life can be explained as follows:

* An ideology expresses the ideas and thoughts of all individuals in a society.

* It can unite the people on a platform on the basis of common ideas and traditions.

* It determines the clear principles about the ‘mode of life’, due to this an effective force is developed among people. So they participate in the practical struggle of life.

* It produces self consciousness and prudence among people due to this they become fully aware about basic objectives of a society.

* It helps in fixing the freedom, culture and traditions among the people of a society.

* It explains religious teachings and social values more clearly which help to understand the characteristics of that society.

* All individuals spend purposeful and civilized lives due to an ideology.

Forest 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Types of Forests in Pakistan
Evergreen Forests

There are evergreen forests in northern and north-western parts of Pakistan, as these areas receive more rainfall. Beautiful scenes attract human beings. In this way forest are the means of beauty and attraction. These forest include deodar, firs, blue pine, spruce, chalghoza, oak, chestnut and walnut are also important. These are found in Murree, Mansehra, Abbotabad, Chitral, Swat and Dir Hardwood for the making of furniture is available from these trees.
Foot-Hill Areas Forests

Phulai, Kao, Jand, Acacia, wild olive, black berry etc are found in the foothill areas of these forests. The district of Peshawar, Mardan, Kohat, Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Guj rat are important in this respect.
Dry-Hill Forests

The dry-hill forests are found at altitude of about 900 to 3000 meters in Quetta and kalat division of Balochistan. Other than thorny forests Mazoo, Chaighoza and poplar are important trees.
Miscellaneous Forests

Some of the forests are found in Sukkur, Kotri and Guido. The forests department plants trees like mulberry, sum bal, dhrek and eucalyptus along the rivers, canals and railway lines.
Mangrove Forests

Mangrove forests are found along the coastline from Karachi to Kutch.

Importance of Forests

Forest plan an important role being a natural resource in the development af a country as explained below.
Slow Melting of Ice and Soil Erosion

Rain and snow in heavy quantity fall on the northern mountains of Pakistan. These areas are the main source of water of rivers. The forest also stop soil erosion as they slow down the speed of rainwater on the slopes of mountains. They also irrigate teh plains regularly.
Forest provide Fuel

Forest provide wood as fuel in place of coal. They also provide timber, firewood, gum and other useful things which are very important for the trade of country.
Pleasant Climate

Forest make the climate of an area very pleasant as they reduce heat and pollution.
Rainfall

Temperature is reduced by forests and air becomes moist. Rainfall in a region increases due to presence of forests.
Fertility of Soil

Forest keep the soil intact and soil fertility remains uneffected.
Stopage of sand and silt

Rivers carry huge amount of sand and silt that fill our dams and lakes and destroy hydroelectric power projects, the presence of forests stop the sand and silt.
Water Logging and Salinity

Forests are very useful in water logged and salinity effected areas. Trees absorbs water from the soil and lower water level of underground reserves. The forests ate useful in stopping of floods and safety of dams.
Tourism

Forests promote tourism. There are many places in the northern and north-western mountainious areas of Pakistan. Which are covered with forests and known for recreations for the peoples.
Wild LIfe

Forests are very important for wild life. In forests animals of hunting are found from which we get meat. In this way forest are the source of the hunting and also act as places of recreation.
Employment

Forests provide employment to a large part of population in Pakistan.
Fruits and Fodder

Forests provide different kinds of fruits and fodder to animals.
Imporatant role in Economy

Forests plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan. About five million people are directly or indirectly engaged in this sector we can get building, wood from forests. This wood is used in building and also used in the preparation of furniture.
Herbs

The herbs grown in forests are used for the preparation of medicines

Minerals of Pakistan 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Important Minerals

There are three types of minerals.
Metallic Minerals

1. Iron ore.
2. Chromites.
3. Copper etc.
Non-Metallic Minerals

1. Rock Salt.
2. Limestone.
3. Gypsum.
4. Marble, Gemstone, China Clay, Fire Clay, Sulphure etc.
Power Resource Minerals

1. Coal.
2. Natural Gas.
3. Crude Oil etc.
Coal

We have not yet discovered coal which can be used in engines. It is mostly used in manufacturing Calcium Carbonate and bricks. Some coal is also used in homes. We have got coal from various spots places but it is not of good quality. It fulfils 10% of our needs.
Places

The biggest mines of coal is Salt Ranges in Kohistan in the region of Makarwat in Punjab. In these regions coal is also found in Dundot and Pudh. Like Makarwal some mines are such whose tunnels are about nine miles long. In the province of Balochistan many reservoirs are found at other places. Coalmines are in Sharg, Hoset, Hernai, Sar, Dagari, Sheeren Aab, Bolan, Aab and Mush. Processing plant is also set in Shargh. In the lower regions of Sindh mines of Jhimpir and Lakhra are important. Government is in search of more mines.
Mineral Oil

Minerals oil is very important in modern age. It is used in factories, industries and transport. Motorcars, tractors, train truck etc depending upon this oil. It is also used in homes. Average production of oil in Pakistan cannot meet its needs. We are getting 10% oil for our needs and the rest of the oil is imported on which we spend a large amount of foreign exchange. Experts say that at certain we can get oil from the sea. For this purpose we started digging in 1985 at the coast of our sea in Karachi. At certain other places are digging our earth. If we succeed we shall satisfy our need of oil from our our resources.
Places

We are getting oil from Khor, Bhullian, Tut, Kot Sarug, Miyal, Dherznund (District Attock), Kazian (District Rawalpindi), Dhodak (District Dera Ghazi Khan), Kursal ( District Jhelum), and Khushkhali (District Badeen). The oil obtained from Attock, Jhelum and Chakwal districts is refined in Morgah Refinery near Rawalpindi. Refinery means the industry where crude oil is refined for different purposes.
Natural Gas

Natural gas is an important discovery. We meet 35% of our need of energy from this gas. This gas is brought in Lahore, Karachi, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Peshawar and other cities by means of pipelines. This gas is used in Industries and also in our homes as fuel. Fine type of fertilizer is prepared in Multan by using this gas. This gas is aslo used in manufacturing Rayon thread and Chemical materials.
Places

The reservoirs of natural gas are in Sui, Uch, Zin, Kherpur, Muzrani, Hindi, Kundkot, Sarung, Dhodak, Peerkoh and Dhullian.
Iron Ore

Iran ore is very important for the progress of a country. We have set up a steel mill in Karachi with the cooperation of Russia. In Pakistan, iron is not of good quality so it is imported to meet our needs.
Places

The biggest reservoir of iron is found in Kala Bagh. Some are also found in Chitral, Khuzdar, Chulgari and Muslim Bagh. Iron obtained from Chitral and Nokundi is of good quality. Our iron fulfills only 16% of our needs.
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Copper

It is used in manufacturing electric goods especially electric wires. In past it was only used in making coins and utensils.
Places

Its reservoirs are in provinces of Balochistan and Frontier. In Balochistan it is found in Saindak, Chaghi and some other places. These reservoirs are refined by progressive corporation of natural resources. Corporation is working on this plan with cooperation of foreign experts. The work has been started on crude metal in Saindak and Karachi Laboratory.
Saindak Copper Project

In Balochistan, large deposits of copper, gold and silver have been discovered at saindak, Chagai and Amuri. The economy of Pakistan is depended on these projects. China is collaborating with Pakistan on these projects. According to an estimate saindak will give annual production as below.
Copper = 16,000 Tones
Gold = 1.5 Tones
Silver = 2.75 Tones
Chromite

It is a white metal which is used to make iron. It is also used in manufacturing certain instruments, aero planes and colours. It is also used in the art of photography. It is exported to get large amount of foreign exchange.
Places

Its reservoirs are the biggest of the world in found Pakistan. Theses reservoirs are found in Muslim Bagh. Small reservoirs are found in Chaghi, Kharan, Malakand, Mehmund and North Waziristan.
Rock Salt (Non-Metallic)

Pakistan has vast reserves of salt. It is used in various eatables, the biggest is Khewra Mine. The area of this mine is about 10500 square meters. It is producing high quality of salt from centuries. Another mine is in Khushah. We aslo get salt from mines of Kala Bagh, Jutta and Bahadur Khail. We get salt from seawater near Maripur and Coast of Makran. This sea salt is used to preserve fish and is in some industrial uses. The annual production during the year 2000-01 was 1275 tonnes.
Lime Stone

Limestone is very useful raw material for cement industry. It is found in the northern and western mountain areas of Pakistan mostly. Large deposits are found in Daudthail, Wah, Rohri, Hyderabad and Karachi. The annual production of limestone is 9.9 thousand tonnes.
Gypsum

It is a bright stone of white colour. It is an important wealth of our country. It is used in manufacturing cement, chemical fertilizer and plaster of Paris, Sulphuric Acid and Ammonium Sulphate. It is also used in small industries. The annual production of Gypsum is 358.5 thousand tonnes approximately.
Places

It is obtained from Salt range and western mountainous areas of Pakistan. The important mines of Gypsum are in Khewra, Dandot, Daudkhail, Rohri and Kohat.
Marble

It is a very beautiful stone of white or black colour. It is used in the floores or walls of building to make them attractive and beautiful. A large quantity of white and black marble is found in Cambelpur near Faith Jung in Kala Chitta Hills. District Muzaffarabad and Mirpur of Azad Kashmir are other important areas where marble is found. The annual production of marble is 586.6 thousand tonnes.
Places

In our country marble is of various types. The best in Khyber Agency at Mullah Gori. It is Swat, Noshera, Hazara, Gilgit and Chaghi.
Sulphur

It is the necassary part of explosive material. It is very important for the defence of a country. It is also used in making Sulphuric Acid and many other chemicals. We get crude Sulphur which is made useful by our experts. Soon we will be able to meet our needs of Sulphur. After cleaning Sulphur, it is also used chemical industries. Industries are being set up in Quetta and Karachi.
Places

Its reserves are found in Koh-e-Sultan (District Chaghi) and (District Karachi).
China Clay

China clays is found in Mangora (District Swat) and Nagar Parkar (Sindh).
Fire Clay

It is used in making strong bricks which is used in Kiln of bricks.
Places

It is found in Kohistan Nimak and Kala Citta Hills. Its reserves also are found in Swat, Hazara and Malakand. In Pakistan clay making Chini utensils are also found. This clay is also used in making tiles and sanitary ware. Its reserves are in Swat, Hazara and Malakund.
Calcium Carbonate

It is used in manufacturing cement, sugar and certain other materials. It is also used for the preparation of white wash stone by burning it.
Places

Its reservoirs are found in several parts of our country. Its vast reservoirs are Dandot, Daudkhail, Wah, Rohri, Hyderabad and Karachi

Important Characteristics of the Constitution of 1962 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

of 1962

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Constitution of 1962

President Ayub Khan established a Constitutional Commission. This commission sent its recommendations. According to these recommendations a new constitution was prepared and enforced on 8th June, 1962 and Martial Law was finished.
The Main Features of 1962 Constitution

Following are the main features of constitution of 1962:
Written Constitution

The constitution was in written form and it constituted of 250 articles and 5 schedules.
Federal Constitution

The constitution was federal in nature.

Presidential Form of Government

Presidential form of Government was enforced instead of parliamentary system.
Islamic Issues

Various Islamic provisions were incorporated in the constitution i.e. sovereignty of Allah and exercises of power through the elected representatives of people. Pakistan was named as Islamic republic of Pakistan. It Head must be a Muslim as compulsory.
Basic Human Rights

People were given fundamental rights.
National Languages

Urdu and Bengali were declared the national language of Pakistan.
Failure of Constitution of 1962

In 1968-69 the political parties of the country started agitation against Ayub Khan and Presidential system, enforced parliamentary system and democratic constitution. This movement became much powerful within few months and there were agitations seen everywhere in the country. As a result of such situation on 25th March, 1969 President Ayub Khan resigned and transferred his powers to Commander in Chief Yahya Khan. He abrogated the constitution

Islamic Provisions of 1973 Constitution 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Introduction

The following are the Islamic provisions of 1973 constitution based on the principles of:
1. Holy Quran and Sunnah
2. Islamic Republic of Pakistan
3. Pakistan shall be known as “Islamic Republic of Pakistan”.
4. State Religion
5. Islam shall be the state religion of Pakistan.
6. Sovereignty belongs to Allah.
Sovereignty Belongs to Allah

Sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah and the authority bestowed by him on men is a sacred trust which the people o Pakistan will exercise with the limits prescribed by Quran and Sunnah.
Definition of a Muslim

The constitution also gives the definition of a Muslim. A person who believes in Tauheed or Oneness of Allah and in the prophet hood of Hazrat Mohammad
A Muslim to be A President and Prime Minister

The constitution lay down that only Muslims shall be elected President and Prime Minister of Pakistan. Non could not hold these offices.
Islamic Way of life

Steps shall be given to enable the Muslims of Pakistan to order their lives in accordance with the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam.
Promotion of Social Justice and Eradication of Social Evils

The state shall take necessary steps for prosecution of social justice and eradication of social evils and shall prevent prostitution, gambling and taking of injurious drugs, printing, publication, circulation and display of obscene literature and advertisements.
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Teachings of Holy Quran

The state shall try to make the teachings of Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language.
Strengthen Bond with Muslim World

The state shall endeavour to strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries in order to promote Islamic unity.
Council of Islamic Ideology

There is a council of Islamic ideology which shall guide the government in respect of Islamic teachings, their implementation and propagation. Its chairman and members are appointed by President. Although its advice is not blinding on the government yet it is not easy for any government to ignore or over rule its suggestion or opinion regarding any law.
Error Free Publication of Quran

The government shall endeavour to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Holy Quran.
Oath to Project and Promote Islamic Ideology

The Federal and Provincial Ministers, the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the National and Provincial Assemblies, the Chairman of the Senate and the Governors and Chief Ministers of the Provinces also take oath to preserve and protect the Islamic Ideology.
Ahmadi’s A Non Muslim Minority

According to the second amendment of 1973 constitution, the Qadiani group or the Lahori group who call themselves “Ahmadi’s” were declared as Non-Muslim minority.
Conclusion

The 1973 constitution enlisted the main principles of State Policy Maximum efforts were made to improve the character of this constitution. Like other constitution, 1973 constitution of Pakistan also provides for the protection, propagation and enforcement of Islamic Ideology

Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Describe the Struggle of Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi in eliminating the evils in Punjab and N.W.F.P. or What do you know about the movement of Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi? or Describe the role of Mujahideen movement to eliminate the social evils in subcontinent.

Introduction

Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi was born in 29 November 1786 in Rai Bareilley. He moved to Delhi at the age of eighteen and became the follower of Shah Abdul Aziz. He received the necessary education during his stay at Delhi. In 1812 he joined the army of Nawab Ameer Khan Tonak in order to take part in Jihad against the British. In 1821, he went to perform Hajj but stayed there for two years where he met with the great thinkers of Islam and got knowledge about the movements of Islam in the world. He became greatly impressed from this new system of thought for Islam. When he came back on 6 August 1823 to India, he devoted himself for the religious and social reformation of the Muslims and the preparation of Jihad. He received martyrdom in fighting with Sikhs on 6th May 1831.
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The Mujahideen Movement

Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi started a great movement in the North of India; this movement is known as “The Mujahideen Movement” or “The Movement o Jihad”. This movement arranged a power for the struggle of freedom in Muslims which produced a spirit of survival and they started freedom struggle.
Background of the Mujahideen Movement

Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi selected a particular way on the command of his spiritual guide Shah Abdul Aziz and devoted himself in the preparation of the holy war. He started a national movement for this purpose in 1818 and organized this movement after is arrival from Hajj as the Mujahideen Movement in 1831.
Objectives of Mujahideen Movement

He wanted to make the Muslims as the true lover of Islam, for this purpose he started the Mujahideen Movement.
The main objectives of the Mujahideen Movement were following;

  • To preach unicity of Almighty Allah.
  • To revive the teachings of Islam and prepare the Muslims to pass their lives simply according to the teachings of Islam.
  • To protect the Muslims against such acts and ideas which are contrary to Islamic values.
  • To protect the Muslims from the worship of other things except Allah.
  • To preach Jihad because it was not possible to get freedom from evil force without armed struggle.

Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi wanted to eliminate the domination of Sikhs in Punjab and N.W.F.P to revive Islamic values and traditions.
He started Jihad in the Punjab and N.W.F.P. Shah Ismail Shaheed along with six thousand followers also joined Syed Ahmed in his Jihad against evil forces. Syed Ahmed toured different areas around Delhi and Punjab, where number of his followers joined him.
Struggle of Mujahideen Movement

The Mujahideen Movement was started against the Sikhs. He came to Sindh in 1826 and sought to help Syed Sibghatullah Shah Pir Pagara. Syed Sibghatullah Shah Pir Pagara sent a strong contingent of this staunch followers called “Hurs”. Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi left his family under the protection of Pir Pagara and proceeded towards Jihad without any worry about his family. Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi reached Nowshehra after passing though Afghanistan, the Khyber Pass and Peshawar in December 1826 and made it his headquarter. The first battle against hte Sikhs was fought on December 21, 1826 near Akora. The Sikhs were defeated. The second battle was fought at Hazro. It was also won by the Muslims. These victories inspired a number of Pathan tribes to join Jihad Movement. The number of Mujahideen rose to 80,000. Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi was given the status of “Amir-ul-Momineen”. Islamic laws were enforced in the area which was controlled by Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi.
The movement of the Holy war was initially very successful but soon conspiracies began against Syed Ahmed, Maharaja Ranjid Singh (1780-1839) bribed Sardar yar Mohammad and his brother Sultan Mohammad Khan to plot against the Khilafat of Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi. The disloyalty of the tribal leaders disheartened him. He made Balakot as is new headquarter. He started his struggle from Muzaffarabad. Here a tough fight started between the Mujahideen and the Sikhs. The Muslims fought with heroism but Syed Ahmed and his right hand companions were martyred on 6th May1831. In short, the Mujahideen movement of Syed Ahmed failed in Balakot, but this movement kindled a flame of freedom in sub-continent. The political work of Syed Ahmed Brelvi was carried on later by Willayat Ali of Patna. When the British captured the Punjab then a battle was fought again against the British. Thus the Jihad movement of Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi was ended after several wars like this for independence

Two Nation Theory 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Introduction

The Two Nation theory in its simplest way means the cultural, political, religious, economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities, Hindus and Muslim of the Sub Continent. These differences of out look, in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving rise to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states.
The Basis of the Creation of Pakistan

The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual culture and civilization.
There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two nations. Let us examine each of them separately.
Religious Differences

Islam preaches Tawheed (Oneness of Allah) and believes in equality of man before law. Muslims are the believers of God, the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), the Holy book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life.
Hinduism, on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods. Their society follows a caste system and is divided into four classes and has a very narrow approach towards life.
Hindu Nationalism

The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in the Indian society by way of promoting education and other social activities. Their writings and ideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute the political condition.
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Cultural Differences

Muslim followed the Islamic culture, while Hindus inherited a self build culture. The Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslim burred them. Hindus considered the ‘Mother Cow’ as a sacred animal and worshiped it while Muslims slaughtered it. They performed ‘Sati’ while Muslims abhorred this tradition.
Social Differences

The two communities of the Sub-Continent differ in their social life as well as the clothes the foods, the household utensils, the layout of homes, the words of salutation, the gestures and every thing about them was different and immediately pointed to the distinctive origin.
Economic Differences

After 1857, the Muslim economic was crushed. The Muslims were thrown out of Government services and their estates and properties were confiscated, while the Hindus were provided with ample opportunities to progress economically.
Educational Differences

The Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took to the English education. While Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions.
Political Differences

the political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the development and evolution of the Two Nation Theory.
Hindi Urdu Controversy

In 1867, the Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Persian script. This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims.
Congress Attitude

The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885. It claimed to represent all communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus.
Partition of Bengal

In 1905, the partition of Bengal ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslims but the Hindus launched an agitation against the partition and partition was annulled in 1911.
Language

The Muslim and Hindus wrote and spoke two different languages. The Muslim spoke Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script. On the other hand, the Hindi language was spoken by Hindus and it was written in Sanskrit.
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Sir Syed Ahmed – The Pioneer of Two Nation Theory

The entire freedom movement revolved around the two nation theory which was introduced by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. He considered all those lived in India as one nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of Indian Association he said:
“I look to both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes and consider them as my own eyes. By the word ‘Nation’ I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. We Hindus and Muslims live together on the same soil under the same government. Our interests and problems are common, and therefore, I consider the two factions as one nation.”
Two Nation Theory in the View of Allama Iqbal

Allama Iqbal was the first important figure who propounded the idea of separate homeland on the basis of two nation theory. In the annual session of Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930, he said:
“India is a continent of human beings belonging to different languages and professing different religions … I, therefore, demand the formation of consolidated Muslim state in the best interests of the Muslims of India and Islam.”
Quaid-e-Azam’s Statement on Two Nation Theory

He expounded the two nation’s theory in such detail that most Muslims and even some Hindus came to believe in its truth. He declared:
“Muslims are not a minority; they are one nation by every definition of the word nation. By all canons of international law we are a nation.”
Quaid-e-Azam reiterated that Hindus and Muslims could ever evolve a common nationality was an idle dream.
In 1973, he said:
“Hindustan is neither one country, nor its inhabitant’s one nation. This is sub continent which consists of many nations of which the Hindus and Muslims are two major nation.”
Conclusion

Two nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan because without it Pakistan would not come into being on 14th August, 1947

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Early Education

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he was born in Delhi on 17th October 1817. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a great reformer. He belonged to a prominent family of the city. After completing his formal education, he entered service with the British East India Company in 1839. He rose to the position of judge in 1846 and later on he was transferred to Banglore as the Chief Judge.
The First Task

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan began his first task to soften British hostility towards the Muslims of subcontinent. He wrote a book “Essay on the causes of the India Revolt” on the war of independence. This book was sent to British Members of the parliament and was circulated among British officials.
Educational Services

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan knew that the Muslims could not achieve this goal without education. He set up a Persian school at Muradabad in 1859. This school was upgraded to the college in 1875. This college was upgraded to the college and the university level after his death. The educated Muslims of the early twentieth century were the product of this institution.
Political Services

He urged the Muslims to acquire knowledge first and then they should take part in the politics of the subcontinent. After the war of independence, his position was not less than that of a great political reformer for Muslims.

Aligarh Movement

Aligarh Movement had the following objects:

1. To build confidence between the British and the Muslims.

2. To persuade the Muslims to get scientific knowledge and learn English language.

3. To hold back the Muslims from the collective politics.
Effects of Aligarh Movement

His main focus was on Aligarh to achieve his goals. he estabished Mohammad an Anglo Oriental School. It was a symbol of a broad movement affecting every phase of Muslim life. The actions taken by Sir syed Ahmed Khan for the educational uplift of the Muslims left a far-reaching impact on the political, social, economic and religious aspects of the Muslims. The Aligarh movement showed new ways to press and opened the doors of economic prosperity for the Muslims of the sub-continent.

Congress and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

In 1883, Lord A.O.Hume formed an organization called Indian National Congress. The aim of this party was to provide a political platform for the Indians. Many Indians joined this party. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was an open minded and large hearted person. He was a great patriot, At first he considered all who lived in India as one nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. He looked both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes. He said,

“By the word “Nation”, I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. Our interests and problems are common and therefore, I consider the two factions as one nation.”

But unfortunately the attitude of Hindus and Congress compelled him to reconsider his ideas about one nation. He felt sorry to see that both Congress and Hindus looking against the interests of the Muslims. Congress ignored the Muslims totally. He failed to bring Hundus and Muslims closer a one single platform He saw that the Hindus never come forward with open mind and always adopted a policy to damage the Muslim cause, so Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims to keep themselves away from it. On 1st October 1906 Sir Agha Khan led a Muslim delegation and met the Viceroy Lord Minto at Simla to demand a separate electorate for Muslims in the coming reforms. The viceroy save a good response to them. There being no political party for Muslims at that time a strong need for it was felt. God Almightly enabled them to form Muslim League.
Urdu-Hindi Controversy

In 1867, Hindus demanded that Hindi should be made on official language of India in place of Urdu. They started an agitation. The Hindus were against Urdu because it was the language o the Muslims, Sir Syed felt sorry and he was now convinced that the Hindus would never be friend with the Muslims.
The Real Founder of Pakistan

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan saw the attitude of Hindus towards the Muslims and felt sorry for it. He declared,

“I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation.”

Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations because their religion, culture, history and way of life are quite distinct from each other. In this way we can say this great hero and reformer, the real founder of Pakistan.

Sir Syed passed away on 27 March 1898 but his work was continued by Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. Due to the Sir Syed’s efforts the Muslims emerged as a separate identity

Role of Baluchistan in the Freedom Movement 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Introduction

According to area, Baluchistan is the is the biggest province of Pakistan. Quetta is capital of Baluchistan. Sui gas is found in Baluchistan. The people of this province are very courageous and brave. In the past, this province remained under-developed but today it is moving on the path of progress.
Historical Background

During British rule Baluchistan did not enjoy the status of province. It was deprived of political reforms. Due to this remained backward politically and economically. In 1927, Tavares-e-Delhi given by Muslim leaders and in 1929 in Quaid-e-Azam’s fourteen points, it was demanded that political reforms should also be introduced in Frontier and Baluchistan like other provinces.
Political Awakening

The process of political awakening in Baluchistan; started very late because its link with other parts of the country was very little. They were backward in education.
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Organization of Muslim League

Muslim League was founded in Baluchistan in 1939. Qazi Mohammad is at the top of the list of people, which made Muslim League active in Baluchistan, Nawab Mohammad Khan Jogezai and Mir Jafar Jamali also served much. These leaders prepared the people here for making Pakistan both mentally and practically.
Favour for Pakistan Resolution

Baluchistan Muslim League favored Pakistan movement very much. The leaders held meeting here fro time to time and prepared the people mentally for Pakistan.
Active Part in Pakistan Movement

The people of Baluchistan took active part in Pakistan Movement. In April 1947 Pakistan Conference was held in Quetta in which Muslim League strongly demanded Pakistan as their independent state.
Joining Pakistan

On 3rd June 1947 it was declared that Balochi Shahi Jerga and Quetta municipal Committee would decide about the future of Baluchistan. Congress tried much to win the favour but failed due to the untiring efforts of Qazi Mohammad Esa, Nawab Mohammad Khan Jogezai, Mir Jaffer Khan Jamali and ohter leaders and workers of Muslim League Shahi Jerga, Balochi leaders and Municipal Committee decided in favour of Pakistan. In this way Baluchistan became the part of Pakistan.