Biology

BIOLOGY NOTES In Book , Biology 9th Class Notes, 9th Class Biology Notes, Comments about Free Notes for Class IX, Biology Notes Of Class 9th

CHAPTER – 1 (Introduction to Biology)

Introduction to Biology     CHAPTER – 1 Science Our universe operates under certain principles. For understanding of these principles, the experiments are done and observations are made; on the basis of which logical conclusions are drawn. Such a study is called “Science”. In brief science is the knowledge based on experiments and observations. Biology The Scientific study of living …

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CHAPTER – 3 (Classification of Living Organisms)

Classification of Living Organisms     CHAPTER – 3 Classification The arrangement of organisms into groups and subgroups on the basis of similar characters is called classification. Basis of Classification The classification of organisms is based on such features or characters, which are similar in one kind of organisms and different in different kind of organisms. These characters may be …

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CHAPTER – 4 (Virus, Bacteria and Cyano Bacteria)

Virus, Bacteria and Cyano Bacteria     CHAPTER – 4 Micro-Organisms A large number of living things are present in this world. Some of them are large and some are small. Majority of the organisms are so small that they re not seen with naked eyes. For their observation, we need a light microscope or even an electron microscope. These …

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CHAPTER – 5 (Fungi and Algae)

Fungi and Algae     CHAPTER – 5 Fungi During rainy season, a large number of umbrella-shaped mushrooms emerge on dung-piles. Fluffy mass of tangled threads like structure with black-dots of molds is also often seen growing on orages and bread, these mushrooms and molds are fungi. Characteristics of Fungi 1. Fungi are simple heterotrophic eukaryotes which cannot manufacture their …

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CHAPTER – 6 (Bryophytes and Tracheophytes)

Bryophytes and Tracheophytes     CHAPTER – 6 Bryophytes Bryophytes are on of the two main groups of kingdom ‘Plantae’ the second being the ‘tracheophytes’. Bryophytes is a group of plants which are multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes; and their reproductive organs are multicellular; their zygote develops into small, protected embryo that develops into a complete new hence bryophytes have also been …

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CHAPTER – 7 (Invertebrata)

Invertebrata     CHAPTER – 7 Protozoa 1. According to two-kingdom classification, protozoa are the first phylum of invertebrate animals but according to five kingdom classification it is placed in a separate kingdom, “protista” in which all other eukaryotic unicellular organisms are also placed. 2. Body of all protozoans consists of one cell and istherefore called unicellular. 3. They are …

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CHAPTER – 8 (Chordata and Vertebrata)

Chordata and Vertebrata     CHAPTER – 8 Characters of Class Pisces (fishes) 1. The class of fishes is called Pisces. They are aquatic vertebrates. 2. According to their size and shape, the fishes are of many kinds. 3. They have a head, a trunk and a tail. 4. The head and trunk are directly jointed together and neck absent. …

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CHAPTER – 10 (Respiration)

Respiration     CHAPTER – 10 Respiration The oxidation of the absorbed food material in order to obtain energy is called respiration. There are two types of Respiration in the organisms: 1. Aerobic Respiration 2. Anaerobic Respiration 1. Aerobic Respiration In most of the higher and larger organism, the glucose etc is oxidized by using molecular oxygen. This type of …

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Vitamins

Vitamins     Vitamins Vitamins are very complicated compounds. When vitamins were discovered, their chemical nature was not well known. Therefore, they were denoted with English letters as A, B, C, D, E and K. Now it is known that vitamin B is not a single vitamin but a group of vitamins call ed as vitamin B complex. It has …

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Unicellular Organism (Amoeba)

Unicellular Organism (Amoeba)     The organisms consisting of only one cell are called unicellular organisms e.g. Amoeba, Paramecium etc. Amoeba 1. It is mostly found in fresh water pond or pool. 2. In the ponds, it is found moving about around the weeds and stones. Some species are found in the moist soil. 3. Amoeba is a large protist. …

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