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Role of Sindh in the Making of Pakistan 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Introduction

Sindh is an important province of Pakistan. Karachi is situated in this province and its the biggest city of Pakistan. Karachi is the capital of Sindh and is called small or mini Pakistan. Sindh played very important role in the formation of Pakistan.
Historical Background

Sindh became the part of Muslim state firstly after the victory of Mohammad Bin Qasim. That is why it is called the gateway of Islam. During the rule of Mohammad Bin Qasim and his followers Sindh remained the province of Abbasi Caliphate for nearly three centuries. During this time, many great scholars were born there which made Sindh famous over the Islamic world, during the decline period of Abbas when local rulers got the control of Sindh. After this Sindh remained under the control of Sultans of Delhi and Mughal rulers. However, the government of Muslims remained there till the arrival of the British rule. Shah Abdul Latif Bhatai and Hazrat Sachal Surmast are the famous Sufi poets of Sindh.
Separation of Bombay from Sindh

During the rule of the English, Sindh was made a part of Bombay, due to which no attention given to the social and educational position of Sindh. In Quaid’s fourteen points the separation of Sindh from Bombay was demanded. In this way due to the continuous efforts of Muslim League Sindh was separated from Bombay in 1935. It was made a separate province of Muslim majority.
Home Land of Quaid

Quaid-e-Azam was born in Karachi. He completed his early education in Sindh Madrassa High School.
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Pakistan Movement

The Muslims of Sindh took active part in Pakistan Movement. In 1938 the Provincial Muslim League of Sindh passed a resolution in which it was demanded that the provinces with Muslim majority should be given to Muslims. It was the first time that any branch of Muslim League passed a resolution of separate homeland.
Favour for Pakistan Resolution

On 23 March 1940, there was held a Muslim League Session in Lahore in which Pakistan Resolution was passed. The Muslim League leaders of Sindh supported the resolution very much. A prominent leader of Sindh, Sir Abdullah Haroon felt happy on this pattern that the demand of Sindh Muslim League made in 1938 became the demand of Muslim League on national level.
Pakistan Demand Committee

Quaid-e-Azam made a committee in Sindh province to speed up the struggle for Pakistan in which Sir Abdullah Haroom and many other leaders of Sindh were the members. By the efforts of these Muslim leaders the demand for Pakistan became more popular.
Muslim League Ministry

Muslim League in 1943 became so popular in Sindh that it established its own ministry. In this way Sindh was the first province in the sub continent where the Muslim League established its ministry. In December 1943, Sindh Provincial Assembly once again became more superir to other provinces by passing resolution in favour of Pakistan.
Success of Muslim League in Elections 1946

After the provincial elections in February 1946 the leader of the Muslim League, Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah established ministry under leadership. But this assembly was dissolved due to the conspiracies of Congress and new elections were held in 1946 in which Muslim League won all the seats and established its ministry again.
Entry in Pakistan

According to the plan of division of sub-continent on 3rd June, 1947 there was held a meeting of Sindh Provincial Assembly which decided to join Pakistan by the favour of majority

Motives and Objectives of Muslim League 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Introduction

The important motives and objectives of Muslim League are as under:
1. To safe guard and protect Muslim interests and to convey their demands to British Government.
2. To create a feeling of respect and good will in Muslims for the British Government.
3. To promote brotherhood between different nationals of India.
Role of Muslim League

The role played by All India Muslim League in the creation of Pakistan is summarized under:
Minto-Morley Reform Act – 1909

The Muslims under the able leadership of Muslim League now began to press for the separate electroate for the Muslims. The authorities accepted their demand in an Act, called “The Minto-Morley Reform Act”, 1909.
Lucknow Pact – 1916

In November 1916, two committees of League and Congress met at Calcutta and drew and agreement draft of political reform for India called “Lucknow Pact.” Through this pact the Congress recognized the separate status of Muslims.
Simon Commission

In 1927, Simon Commission was sent to India under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon to settle Muslim Hindu differences. It was rejected because there was no Indian member on the commission.
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Jinnah’s Fourteen Points – 1929

The Quaid-e-Azam refused to accept the nehru – report. He prepared a draft of guiding principles consisting of 14 points, popularly known as “Jinnah’s Fourteen Points.”
Allama Iqbal’s Allahabad Address – 1930

In 1930, in his presidential address at annual session of League at Allahabad, Iqbal proposed the formation of a separate Muslim State by combining Northern and South-Western Muslim majority region in Sub Continent.
Day of Deliverance

On 22nd December, Muslim League observed “Deliverance Day” to thank for Allah for resignation of Congress Ministers.
Pakistan Resolution – 1940

The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate nations. On March, 23rd, at the annual session of the Muslim League at Lahore, the famous resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was passed. It was presented by Maulvi Fazlul Haq.
Cripps Mission – 1942

Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India, to discuss with Indian leaders, the future Indian Constitution. His proposal was rejected by both the Congress and the League. The Congress characterized them as “a post-dated check on a failing bank.” Jinnah said that:
“If these were accepted “Muslims would become a minority in their majority provinces as well”.
Gandhi Jinnah Talks – 1944

Gandhi held talks with Jinnah to discuss about the future of India, but no fruitful results came out of it because Gandhi did not accept Muslims as a separate nation.
Simla Conference – 1945

Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla. The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one sided attitude of Lord Wavell. In this conference, Quaid-e-Azam made it crystal clear that the (7) Muslims League can represent Muslims of India.
General Elections – 1945-1946

Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-1946 in which Muslim League won 30 seats of central legislative meant for Muslim and 430 seats out of 495 in the provincial legislative.
Cabinet Mission – 1946

Cabinet Mission visited India in 1946 and submitted its recommendations to the Britishers. As a result Interim Government was formed but Congress and League couldn’t cooperate amongst them.
Delhi Convention – 1946

Quaid-e-Azam called a convention of all the Muslim League Members at Delhi. At the convention every membter took the pledge to under go any danger for the attainment of national goal of Pakistan.
3rd June Plan – 1947

Lord Mount Batten prepared the plan for transference of power according to the wish of people. He emphasized on the partition of the country and told that it was the only solution of the Indian political deadlock. Both League and Congress accepted the plan.
Conclusion

Muslims League thus got its object and Pakistan was created on 14th August 1947. In short we can say that the creation of Pakistan is the result of the ceaseless efforts of the Muslim League and the great heroes which dedicated their lives for the creation of Pakistan. If there were be no Muslim League the fate of the Muslims of the Sub Continent could not be changed

Fourteen Points of Quaid-e-Azam 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Introduction

In March 1929, at the annual session of All India Muslim League, Quaid-e-Azam declared his famous fourteen points.
Federal System

The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers rested in the provinces.
Provincial Autonomy

A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.
Representation of Minorities

All legislative in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principles of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.
Number of Muslim Representatives

In the central legislative, Muslims representatives shall be not less than one-third.
Separate Electorates

Representative of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorates as at present provided it shall be open to any community, at any time, to abandon its separate electorate in favour of joint electorate.
Muslim Majority Provinces

Any territorial re-distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affects the Muslim majority in Punjab, Bengal and N.W.F.P.

Religious Liberty

Full religious liberty, liberty of belief, worship and observance, association and education shall be guaranteed to all the communication.
Three-Fourth Representation

No bill or resolution shall be passed in any legislative or any other elected body if three-fourths of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill.
Separation of Sindh

Sindh should be separated from Bombay Presidency.
Introduction of Reforms in N.W.F.P and Baluchistan

Reforms should be introduced in the Noth West Frontier Province and Baluchistan on the same footing as in other provinces.
Government Services

Muslims should be given adequate share along with ohter Indians in the services of State.
Protection of Muslim’s Culture and Language

The constitution should embody adequate safeguard for the protection of Muslim culture, language, religion and civilization.
One-Third Muslim Ministries

No Cabinet, either central or provincial is formed. Without being a proportion of atleast one third Muslim Ministers.
Conclusion

No change shall be made in the constitution of State except with the concurrence of State constituting the Indian Federation. The reasonable and moderate demands, contained in the fourteen points, were rejected by the Hindus leaders which considerably widened the gulf between the two communities.
Importance of Jinnah’s Fourteen Points

A comparison of the Nehru Report with the Quaid-e-Azam’s fourteen points shows that the political gap between the Muslims and the Hindus had really widened. Fourteen points of Quaid-e-Azam became principles for the Muslims of India. The importance of these points can be judged by the fact that these points were presented in the Round Table Conference of 1930. As a result, these points became the demands of the Muslims and greatly influenced the Muslims thinking for the next two decades till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947.

Role of N.W.F.P in the Establishment of Pakistan 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Pakistan

Friendsmania.net
Introduction

North West Frontier Province is an important province of Pakistan. Its capital is Peshawar. Famous Khyber Pass is situated in this province. Foreign invaders entered sub-continent through this pass. It is an historical passage. Khushal Khan Khattak and Rehman Baba are the most famous poets of this province.
Facing Difficulties

Frontier is the province of Muslim majority. But Muslim League had to face many difficulties and problems while establishing it here. This difficulty was due to the leaders that were under the influence of Congress and they favoured its policies. Among such leaders Sarhadi Gandhi Abdul Ghaffar Khan was at the top of the list. In this province, Congress had the ministry that opposed the movement of Muslim League.
Organization of Muslim League

Muslim League slowly made its strong hold there under the leadership of the Quaid. Muslim League began to become popular in Frontier after passing Pakistan Resolution in 1940. Muslims of this area began to join Muslim League. Congress in this province started making false cases against the Muslim Leaders to torture them and locked them in jails. But they did not lose their courage. The struggle of Muslim League after 1945 became active. Among the leaders which contributed a lot are Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan, Peer Sahib Zakori Sharif and Peer Sahib Manki Sharif.
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Demand for Pakistan

In February, 1947 Muslim League started the Non Co-Operative Movement against the Congress. Provincial Government gave hard tortures to Muslim League workers but it could not stop the Muslim League movement. Instead, it began to spread in the whole province. Provincial government began to be hated everywhere in the province and meetings of Muslim League began to be held in favour of separate homeland. In his way it was proved that the people of Muslim League were in the favour of Pakistan.
Conflict between Muslim League and Congress

On 3rd June, 1947 British government accepted the demand of Pakistan and declared that the future of Frontier will be decided by vote. So the Muslims stopped Non-Cooperation Movement. Muslim started convincing the people to give vote for Pakistan. On the other hand Congress started movement against Pakistan and raised a slogan of Free Baluchistan.
Joining Pakistan

The people of Frontier voted in favour of Pakistan in a large majority. In this way Frontier became the part of Pakistan and the Muslims of Frontier got their independence.

Role of Quaid-e-Azam as Governor General 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Quaid-e-Azam As A Governor General

On 14th August 1947, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the 1st Governor General. He remained Governor General for thirteen months. During this period, he solved many important national issues. Some of them are mentioned as under:
Formation of Federal Cabinet

As soon as the Quaid-e-Azam took an immediate action and nominated members of the Federal Cabinet to run the Government affairs smoothly. Liaquat Ali Khan was elected as the Prime Minister. Other members of the cabinet were also nominated. This first cabinet of Pakistan took oath on 15th August 1947.
Members of the Cabinet

1. Sardar Abdul Rab Nisther (Transports)
2. Raja Ghazanfer Ali Khan (Agriculture)
3. Fazal-ur-Rehman (Education
4. I.I Chundrigar (Industry)
5. Ghulam Mohammad (Finance)
6. Jogander Nath Mandal (Law)
7. Sir Zafar Ullah Khan Qadyani (Affair)
Constitutional Problems

The Act of 1935 was amended and enforced in the country as there was no constitution available of the newly born state. Thus this great achievement was done under the administrative leadership of the Quaid-e-Azam.
Establishment of Capital

Karachi was made Capital of Pakistan.
Provincial Government

Quaid-e-Azam elected Chief Minister and Governor. Here are chief ministers of provinces:

  • Khan Iftikhar Hussain Mumdot – Punjab
  • Khuwaja Nazam-ud-Dn – East Bengal
  • Khan Abdul Qayyum – N.W.F.P
  • Mohammad Ayub Khuro – Sindh
  • Chief Commissioner (British) – Baluchistan

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Establishment of Administrative Head Quarters

For the administrative reformation, a committee was set up and Chaudhry Mohammad Ayub was made the Secretary General. Civil Services were re-organized and Civil Services Academy was constituted. The Secretariat was established. Moreover, Head quarters for Army, Navy and Air Force were set up. An ammunition factory was also set up.
Attention to Foreign Affairs

Realizing the sensitivity of foreign affairs, Quaid-e-Azam paid his utmost attention to the Foreign Policy. He developed healthy relations with the neighboring and developed countries that were the main objective of the Foreign Policy.
Membership of UNO

After independence, Quaid-e-Azam paid immediate attention for acquiring membership of the United Nations Organization (UNO). On 30th September 1947, Pakistan became the member of the UNO. This all, was done under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam.
Implementation of Education Policy

Education plays an important role in the development of a country. It improves living standard of a nation and development. Education sector also needed attention at the time of independence. for this purpose, he held the first Educational Conference in 1947. He wished that every citizen of Pakistan should serve his nation with honesty and national spirit. he made nation with honesty and national spirit. He made acquisition of scientific and technological education compulsory for the students. Quaid-e-Azam did a lot to improve education policy of the country.
In the Service of Pakistan

Quaid-e-Azam served his country till his death. Despite his bad health, he kept on going through the important files. He succumbed to deadly disease of consumption.
First Cabinet of Pakistan

First cabinet of Pakistan was also elected by Quaid-e-Azam. He took of it. Liaquat Ali Khan was first Prime Minister of Pakistan.

3rd June Plan 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

3rd June Plan and Lord Mountbatten

Lord Mountbatten became the viceroy of India in March 1947. He tried his best to keep India United but of no avail. He concluded that there was no solution to Indian problems except partition of it.
3rd June Plan and the Creation of Pakistan

On 3rd June 1947 the viceroy announced the partition plan in a joint conference of Congress and Muslim League leaders in Delhi. The plan came to be known as 3rd June Plan. Some important points of the plan were as under:
The Indian Independence Bill 1947

Power would be given to Pakistan by 14th August 1947. This bill was passed and came to be known as Independence Bill 1947.
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Separate Session

A clause was incorporated in the 3rd June Plan that separate session of Muslim and Hindu Members of the Assemblies of Punjab and Bengal would be held to decide whether their provinces were in favour of the partition, and how it would take place.
New Boundaries

the new boundaries of these provinces would be decided by a commission.
Sindh Assembly

Sindh Assembly would decide the future state of the province through the majority of volte. Sindh Assembly voted for Pakistan.
People of N.W.F.P and Sylhet

the people of N.W.F.P and Sylhet would decide their status through a referendum. N.W.F.P and Sylhet also decided to join Pakistan.
Conclusion

The viceroy announced the plan on 3rd June 1947. According to the plan it was decided to transfer the power on the midnight of the 14th and 15th August 1947 instead of 3rd June 1947

Radcliff Award 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Mr. Radcliff, an ordinary lawyer was sent from England to India for the demarcation of the boundaries of Punjab and Bengal. The viceroy and Mr. Radcliff connived with the Congress and demarcated the boundary according to their wishes. Radcliff included many Muslim majority, areas in India and deprived Pakistan of the waters of Sutlej, Bias and Ravi. Further captured Kashmir and created a Kashmir problem which is still unsolved. The defective planning of Radcliff created many problems for Pakistan unsolved. The defective planning of Radlciff created many problems for Pakistan.
Dawn of Independence

Independence has a great importance for the nations. Pakistan came into being as independent state on 14th August 1947 27th Ramadan and India on 15th August 1947.

Fill in the Blanks | 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

1. Hazrat Shah Walliullah was born in 1703 and was died in 1762.

2. Hazrat Shah Abdul Aziz was born in 1746 and was died in 1824.

3. Syed Ahmed Shaheed was born in 1786 and was died in 1831.

4. Hazrat Shah Walliullah became incharge of Madrassa Rahimiya in 1734.

5. The ruler of Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Abdali rescued Indian Muslims from Marathas.

6. Hazrat Shah Walliullah translated the Holy Quran in Persian Language.

7. Hazrat Shah Walliullah invited the ruler of Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Abdali.

8. Syed Ahmed Shaheed was the disciple of Hazrat Shah Abdul Aziz.

9. Syed Ahmed Shaheed was given the name The Leader of the Faithful.

10. Syed Ahmed Shaheed fought battles with Sikhs.

11. Syed Ahmed Shaheed had started the Jihad Movement.

12. The Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjeet Singh bribed Pathan leader to kill Syed Ahmed Shaheed.

13. Faraizi Movement was started by Haji Shariatullah.

14. Faraizi Movement was started to eradicate non Islamic customs and traditions among Bengali Muslims.

15. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan started Aligarh Movement.

16. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan published a famous pamphlet Asbab-e-Baghawat -e-Hind.

17. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established the scientific society at Ghazipur in 1862.

18. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established Muslim Anglo Oriental School in Aligarh, in 1875.

19. Mohammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh and introduced Islam in the Sub-Continent.

20. Allama Iqbal presented the Two Nation Theory on 30 December 1930 at Allahabad.

21. In 1885 Allan Octarian Hume formed Indian National Congress.

22. The portion of Bengal was made in 1905.

23. The partition of Bengal was made by Viceroy Lord Curzon.

24. Simla Delegation of Muslims was led by Sir Agha Khan in 1906.

25. Muslim League was established in 1906.

26. Muslim League was established in Baluchistan by Qazi Mohammad Isa.

27. Sir Agha Khan was the first president of Muslim League.

28. Quaid-e-Azam became the life time president of Muslim League in 1934.

29. Gandhi started in Civil Disobedience Movement.

30. On 23rd March 1942, Cripps Mission came to India.

31. Independence Act was passed on 27th July 1947.

32. Lord Mount Batten was the first Governor General of India.

33. Lord Mount Batten was the last viceroy of India.

34. In 1940, Quaid-e-Azam presided the Annual session of Muslim League at Lahore.

35. In 1940, Pakistan Resolution was passed.

36. Kashmiri Muslims got 1/3rd territory of Kashmir in 1948.

37. Over Kashmir issue, three wars were fought between Pakistan and India in 1948, 1965 and 1971

38. In 1961, Indus water treaty was signed between Pakistan and India.

Short Question and Answers

Q.1 Write four sentences about the services of Hazrat Shah Waliullah?
Ans.
1. he was a great saint and religious scholar. He preached the Muslims of Sub continent.
2. He reconciled the mutual differences among Muslims.
3. He eradicated the bad manners of assemblies.
4. he set the straight forward path for Muslims.

Q.2 Write any four sentences about the services of Hazrat Shah Abdul Aziz?
Ans.
1. He extended the work of Shah Waliullah.
2. He framed a revolutionary program.
3. He forced Muslims to establish an islamic state.
4. he took severe action against the anti Islamic powers specially Sikhs.

Q.3 Write any four objectives of Syed Ahmed Shaheed’s Jehad Movement?
Ans.
1. To preach the concept of oneness of Allah.
2. To establish an Islamic State.
3. To preach Jihad.
4. To revive Islamic teachings.

Q.4 Write four sentences on the Faraizi Movement?
Ans.
1. Haji Shariatullah started Faraizi Movement.
2. The purpose of this movement was to reform the Bengali Muslims.
3. The movement proved useful to eradicate non Islamic customs and traditions of Bengali Muslims.
4. Islamic techniques were also carried out under the Faraizi Movement.

Q.5 What were the causes of down fall of Mughal Empire?
Ans.
1. Lack of national unity.
2. Highly Centralized Administration.
3. Lack of spirit of Jihad.
4. Educational decline.

Q.6 What were the causes of war of Independence?
Ans.
1. Political Causes
2. Economic Causes
3. Religious Causes
4. Social Causes

Q.7 Write four sentences about Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
Ans.
1. He started Aligarh Movement for social, educational and religious services for Muslims.
2. he wrote a pamphlet to remove the confusions between the British and the Muslims after the war of Independence 1857.
3. he established schools in Muradabad, Gazipur and in Aligarh.
4. He gave the Two Nation Theory.

Q.8 Write four sentences about the Hindus agitation against the partition of Bengal.
Ans.
1. They felt an insult of the national character of India.
2. They criticized the British Government that they had divided Bengal to weaken the freedom of Congress.
3. They started civil disobedience.
4. They created political disorder and unrest in the country.

Q.9 What demand were made by Muslim in 1906 by Simla Delegation?
Ans.
1. Muslim demand separate electorate for Muslims.
2. They demanded full representation in services.
3. They demanded aid for the establishment of the Muslim University.
4. They demanded weight age in all elected bodies.
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Q.10 Why Muslim league was established?
Ans. There were three main factors for the establishment of Muslim League:
1. To protect and safeguards the Muslim’s interest.
2. To cope with the “Minto Morley Reforms.”
3. To promote Muslim loyalty to British Government.

Q.11 Write four sentences about Lucknow Pact.
Ans.
1. Congress accepted the idea of separate electorate for the Muslims.
2. No bill offending a particular community should be proceeded within any council if three fourths of the representatives of that community oppose it.
3. Hindu-Muslim unity was stressed.
4. The Muslims and Hindus were to have weightage in provinces where they formed minorities.

Q.12 What were the main causes of mutiny of war of independence?
Ans.
1. Official interference in religion.
2. The acts which caused restlessness among the Indian soldiers.
3. Absence of Indian representation in the administration of the country.
4. Social reparation between the rules and ruled.

Q.13 What were the main object of Muslim Anglo Oriental College?
Ans.
1. To reject the past tradition and speed up the progress of the Muslims.
2. To reconcile oriental learning with western literature and science.
3. To facilitate western education to the Indian Muslims.
4. To create practical energy among Muslims.

Q.14 Write the four objectives of Khilafat Movement.
Ans.
1. To maintain the Turkish Caliphate.
2. To maintain the unity of Ottoman Empire.
3. To project the holy places of the Muslims.
4. To maintain brotherhood among the Muslim world.

Q.15 Write three sentences about Non-Cooperation Movement.
Ans.
1. To surrender all the British titles.
2. To boycott the British law Courts.
3. Non participation in election.
4. Withdrawal of all students from the education institution.

Q.16 Write any four recommendations of Simon Commission.
Ans.
1. The abolition of diarchy form of government.
2. He rejected Muslims demands regarding one third representation of the centre and statutory majorities in the Punjab and Bengal.
3. He postponed the separation of Sindh from Bombay.
4. He agreed the fair representation for the minorities in the legislatures and in the executives.
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Q.17 Write any four proposals of Nehru Report.
Ans.
1. Abolition of Muslims demand of separate electorate.
2. Reservation of Muslim seats was refused.
3. Hindi should be made the official language.
4. the separation of Sindh from Bombay was accepted.

Q.18 Write any four points of the famous Fourteen Points of Quaid-e-Azam.
Ans.
1. In the central legislative, Muslims representation should not be less than one third.
2. Sindh should be separated from the Bombay Presidency.
3. A uniform measure of autonomy should be granted to all the provinces.
4. Reforms should be introduced in the N.W.F.P and Baluchistan on the same footing as in other provinces.

Q.19 When and where the three round table conference were held?
Ans.
1. The first Round Table Conference was held in London from 22nd November, 1930 to 19th January, 1931.
2. The second Round Table Conference was held in London from 7th September, 1931 to 31st December, 1931.
3. The third Round Table Conference was held in London from 17th November, 1932 to 24th December, 1932.

Q.20 Write any four effects of Pakistan Resolution.
Ans.
1. Muslims were relieved from the Hindus dominion.
2. Gandhi become annoyed and called it a “Moral Mistake”.
3. Hindus dream of “Ram Raj” was vanished.
4. Muslims got a country where they could live according to the teachings of Islam.

Q.21 Write any four points about the role of Quaid-e-Azam as a Governor General.
Ans.
1. He created an establishment of officers.
2. He created National Spirit and patriotism in the newly born country.
3. he started public contracts and visited frequently Baluchistan and N.W.F.P.
4. He paid special attention towards the economy of Pakistan

Salient Features of Objective Resolution

Objective Resolution

After the death of Quaid-e-Azam on 11th September 1948, the responsibility of framing the constitution fell on the shoulders of the first Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan.This resolution was passed by the First Constituent Assembly in March 1949 under the leadership of Liaquat Ali Khan.
Salient Features of Objective Resolution

The salient features of the Objective Resolution are as follows:
Sovereignty Belongs to Allah

The resolution clearly laid down that sovereignty over the entire universe belongs o Almighty Allah alone and the authorities to be exercised by the people of Pakistan as a sacred trust.
Federal System

Federal System of Government will be introduced in Pakistan.
Golden Principles of Islam

Principles of democracy, equality, freedom and social justice as laid down by Islam shall be fully observed.
Supreme Authority of the People

The sovereignty of the state will be established through the elected representative of the people.
Life According to the Teachings of Islam

The Muslims shall be provided with opportunity to order their lives in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam.
Protection of the Rights of Minorities

The rights and interests of the minorities to freely profess and practice their religion will be protected.
Equal Rights to Citizens

All citizens will enjoy their rights on the principle of equality.
Development of Under Developed Areas

All efforts will be made for the development and progress of the under developed areas.
Independence Judiciary

Judiciary will be independent.

Objective Resolution and Liaquat Ali Khan

While introducing the resolution in the Constituent Assembly, Liaquat Ali Khan said:

“The ideals that promised the demand for Pakistan should form the corner stone of the state. When we use the word ‘Democracy’ in the Islamic sense it pervades all aspects of life. It relates to the system of government and to our society will equal validity because one of the greatest contributions of Islam has been the equality of men.”
Importance of the Objective Resolution

This resolution is of fundamental importance in the history of constitutions making in Pakistan because from the first constitution of 1956 till the constitution of 1973 (present constitution) whatever constitution was framed it was based on this objective resolution. It contains those steps and principles which were to be taken for the fulfillment of the basic aim of the freedom struggle that is the establishment of an Islamic society in Pakistan. Hence, it is a significant document in the constitutional history of Pakistan.

When Liaquat Ali Khan visited America, in the course of his speech at New Orleans, he said,

“We believe in God and his Supreme sovereignty because we believe that civic life must have an ethical content and a higher purpose. But democracy, social justice, equality of opportunity and equality before the law of all citizens irrespective of their race and creed are also aspects of faith with us.”
Basic Principles Committee

After passing the Objective Resolution, the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan set up a “Basic Principle Committee” to spell out proposals for the constitution in accordance with the guidelines contained in the Objective Resolution.
Conclusion

All the above mentioned principles were present in the Objective Resolution that is why this resolution is considered an important event in the constitutional history of the country. It was accepted by all classes of people. It provided a guide line for the future constitutions of Pakistan which were passed in 1956, 1962 and 1973. It consisted of such principles which revealed that character of constitution shall be Islamic